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Hypothesis Testing

        Though some qualitative NPF research has been conducted without testing hypotheses, and instead seeking to “articulate expectations or specify theoretical propositions” (Shanahan, Et al., 2018), the majority of NPF research is hypothesis driven.   The hypotheses exist at the micro and meso levels and help in understanding the complexities surrounding the policy process.  An extensive chart of micro and meso level hypotheses, taken from Shanahan, et al. (2018) can be seen below:



Crow, D. A., & Berggren, J. (2014). Using the Narrative Policy Framework to Understand


        Stakeholder Strategy and Effectiveness; A multi-Case Analysis”. ”. In Jones, Shanahan,&


        McBeth (Eds.) The Science of Stories: Applications of the Narrative Policy Framework in Public


        Policy Analysis, 131-156. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Doi:10.1057/9781137485861.0012

Crow, D.A., & Lawler, A. (2016). “Media in the Policy Process: Using Framing and Narratives to


        Understand Policy Influences”. Review of Policy research 33(5), 472-491. doi:





Ertas, N. (2015). “Policy Narratives and Public Opinion Concerning Charter Schools”. Politics


        & Policy 43 (3), 426-451. Doi: 10.1111/polp.12120


Gupta, K., Ripberger, J. T., & Collins, S. (2014). “The Strategic Use of Policy Narratives: Jaitapur


        and the Politics of Siting a Nuclear Power Plant in India”. The Science of Stories, 89-106.



Heikkila, T., Pierce, J. J., Gallaher, S., Kagan, J., Crow, D. A., & Weible, C. M. (2014).


        “Understanding a Period of Policy Change: The Case of Hydraulic Fracturing Disclosure


        Policy in Colorado”. Review of Policy Research, 31(2), 65-87. doi:10.1111/ropr.12058

Jones, M.D., (2010). “Heroes and Villains: Cultural Narratives, Mass Opinion, and Climate Climate


        Change. PhD diss., Harvard University, Cambridge, MA,


        ----- 2014a. “Communicating Climate Change: Are Stories Better than ‘Just the Fact’?” Policy


        Studies Journal, 42(4), 644-673. doi:10.1111/psj.12072


        ----- 2014b. “Cultural Characters and Climate Change: How Heroes Shape Our Perception of


        Climate Science”. Social Science Quarterly, 95(1), 1-39. doi:10.1111/ssqu.12043


Jones, M. D., Fløttum, K., & Gjerstad, Ø. (2017). “Stories about Climate Change: The Role of


        Language in the Climate Change Debate”. In Fløttum (Ed.), The Role of Language in the


        Climate Change Debate, (p. 49-68). New York, NY; Routledge doi:10.4324/9781315456935-4


Jones, M.D., & McBeth, M.K. (2010). “A Narrative Policy Framework: Clear enough to be


        wrong?” Policy Studies Journal, 38(2), 329-353. Doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.2010.00364.x


Jones, M. D., & Song, G. (2013). “Making Sense of Climate Change: How Story Frames Shape


        Cognition. Political Psychology”, 35(4), 447-476. doi:10.1111/pops.12057


Leong, C. (2015). “Persistently Biased: The Devil Shift in Water Privatization in Jakarta”. Review of


        Policy Research, 32(5), 600-621. doi:10.1111/ropr.12138


Kusko, E. (2013). “Policy Narratives, Religious Politics, and the Salvadoran Civil War: The


        Implications of Narrative Framing on the U.S. Foreign Policy in Central America”. PhD diss.,


        Department of Political Science, Idaho State University, Pocatello.


Lawton, R. N., & Rudd, M. A. (2014). “A Narrative Policy Approach to Environmental


        Conservation”. Ambio, 43(7), 849-857. doi:10.1007/s13280-014-0497-8


Lybecker, D. L., Mcbeth, M. K., & Kusko, E. (2013). “Trash or Treasure: Recycling Narratives and


        Reducing Political Polarization”. Environmental Politics, 22(2), 312-332.




Mcbeth, M. K., Lybecker, D. L., & Garner, K. A. (2010). “The Story of Good Citizenship: Framing


        Public Policy in the Context of Duty-Based versus Engaged Citizenship”. Politics & Policy,


        38(1), 1-23. doi:10.1111/j.1747-1346.2009.00226.x


Mcbeth, M. K., Lybecker, D. L., & Stoutenborough, J. W. (2016). “Do Stakeholders Analyze their


        Audience: The Communication Switch and Stakeholder Personal Versus Public

        Communication Choices”. Policy Sciences, 49(4), 421-444. doi:10.1007/s11077-016-9252-2


McBeth, M.K & Shanahan, E.A. (2004). “Public Opinion for Sale: The Role of Policy Marketers in


        Greater Yellowstone Policy Conflict”. Policy Sciences 37 (3), 319-338. Doi:



McBeth, M. K., Shanahan, E. A., Anderson, M. C., & Rose, B. (2012). Policy Story or Gory Story?


        Narrative Policy Framework Analysis of Buffalo Field Campaign's YouTube Videos. Policy &

        Internet, 4(3-4), 159-183. doi:10.1002/poi3.15

Mcbeth, M. K., Shanahan, E. A., Arnell, R. J., & Hathaway, P. L. (2007). “The Intersection of


        Narrative Policy Analysis and Policy Change Theory”. Policy Studies Journal, 35(1), 87-108.




Merry, M. K. (2015). “Constructing Policy Narratives in 140 Characters or Less: The Case of Gun


        Policy Organizations”. Policy Studies Journal, 44(4), 373-395. doi:10.1111/psj.12142


Merry, M. (2016). “Making friends and enemies on social media: The case of gun policy


        organizations”. Online Information Review, 40(5), 624-642. doi:10.1108/oir-10-2015-0333


Niederdeppe, J., Roh, S., & Shapiro, M. A. (2015). “Acknowledging Individual Responsibility while


        Emphasizing Social Determinants in Narratives to Promote Obesity-Reducing Public Policy: A


        Randomized Experiment”. Plos One, 10(2). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117565


Peltomaa, J., Hildén, M., & Huttunen, S. (2016). “Translating Institutional Change - Forest Journals


        as Diverse Policy Actors”. Forest Policy and Economics, 70, 172-180.




Schattschneider, E.E. (1961) “The Semisovereign People, A Realist’s View of Democracy in


        America”. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.


Shanahan, E.A., Adams, S.M., Jones, M.D., & McBeth, M.K. (2014). “The Blame Game: Narrative


        Persuasiveness of International Causal Mechanism”. In Jones, Shanahan,& McBeth (Eds.) The


        Science of Stories: Applications of the Narrative Policy Framework in Public Policy Analysis,


        68-88. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Doi: 10.1057/9781137485861_4

Shanahan, E.A., Jones, M.D., & McBeth, M.K. (2018). “How to Conduct a Narrative Policy


        Framework study”. The Social Science Journal, 55, 332-345. Doi: 10.1016/j.soscij.2017.12.002



        Shanahan, E.A., Jones, M.D., & McBeth, M.K. (2011). “Policy Narratives and Policy Processes”.


        Policy Studies Journal, 39(3), 535-561. Doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.2011.00420.x

Shanahan, E.A., Jones, M.D., McBeth, M.K., & Lane, R.R. (2013). “An Angel on the Wind: How


        Heroic Policy Narratives Shape Policy Realities”. Policy Studies Journal, 41(3), 453-483. Doi:



Shanahan, E.A., Jones, M.D., McBeth, M.K., & Radaelli, C.M. (2017). The Narrative Policy


        Framework. In Weible & Sabatier (Eds.), Theories of the policy process (4th ed., p. 173-213).


        New York, NY; Routledge. Doi: 10.4324/9780429494284-6

Shanahan, E.A., McBeth, M.K., Arnell, R.J., & Hathaway, P.L.. (2008). “Conduit or Contributor? The


        Role of Media in Policy Change Theory”. Policy Sciences, 41(2), 115-138. Doi:



Shanahan, E.A., McBeth, M.K., & Hathaway, P.L.. (2011). “Narrative Policy Framework: The


        Influence of Media Policy Narratives on Public Opinion”. Politics & Policy, 39 (3), 373-400. Doi:



Stone, D. (2012). “Policy Paradox; The art of Political Decision Making”. New York: W.W. Norton.


Weible, C. M., Olofsson, K. L., Costie, D. P., Katz, J. M., & Heikkila, T. (2016). “Enhancing Precision

        and Clarity in the Study of Policy Narratives: An Analysis of Climate and Air Issues in Delhi,

        India”. Review of Policy Research, 33(4), 420-441. doi:10.1111/ropr.12181


Weible, C. M., Sabatier, P. A., & Mcqueen, K. (2009). “Themes and Variations: Taking Stock of the


        Advocacy Coalition Framework”. Policy Studies Journal, 37(1), 121-140.



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