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Policy Narrative Strategies

Narrative strategies are... 

Scope of Conflict

Influenced by E.E Schattchneider (1961), NPF scholars have studied how and when actors strategically construct policy narratives to expand or contain policy issues. 

Causal Mechanism

Causal mechanisms are used to assign responsibility and blame in regards to a policy problem. NPF scholars typically rely on the distinction offered by Deborah Stones, who defines the four causal mechanisms: intentional, inadvertent, accidental, and mechanical.

Devil-Angel Shift


The devil-angel shift is measured as the degree to which the narrator classifies other actors as the villains compared to the degree to which they classify themselves as the hero.


For anyone interested in learning more McBeth, M.K & Shanahan, E.A. (2004). “Public Opinion for Sale: The Role of Policy Marketers in Greater Yellowstone Policy Conflict”. Policy Sciences 37 (3), 319-338. Doi: 10.1007/s11077-005-8876-4 Shanahan, E.A., Jones, M.D., & McBeth, M.K. (2018). “How to Conduct a Narrative Policy Framework study”. The Social Science Journal, 55, 332-345. Doi: 10.1016/j.soscij.2017.12.002 Shanahan, E.A., Jones, M.D., McBeth, M.K., & Radaelli, C.M. (2017). The Narrative Policy Framework. In Weible & Sabatier (Eds.), Theories of the policy process (4th ed., p. 173-213). New York, NY; Routledge. Doi: 10.4324/9780429494284-6

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